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A pregnant patient with severe hyperemesis gravidarum is admitted to the hospital with dehydration. What should be the nurse’s initial nursing action?
A 2-month-old infant is scheduled for immunizations. The mother is concerned about potential side effects. How should the nurse best address the mother’s concerns?
A 28-year-old patient is interested in starting birth control. What should be the nurse’s initial nursing action?
A 2-month-old infant presents for immunizations but has a mild upper respiratory infection. What should the nurse do in this situation?
A newborn of a mother with diabetes is experiencing hypoglycemia despite attempts to breastfeed. What is the nurse’s immediate nursing action?
A 5-year-old child with a burn injury is in severe pain and requires wound dressing changes. The child becomes anxious and fearful. What should the nurse prioritize in the pain management plan?
A pregnant patient with gestational diabetes is having difficulty managing her blood glucose levels with diet and exercise alone. What should be the nurse’s next step in her care?
A nurse is faced with a challenging situation where a patient’s condition is deteriorating rapidly. Which decision-making model would be most appropriate for the nurse to use in this critical situation?
A charge nurse is responsible for delegating tasks to the nursing staff. Which principle of delegation emphasizes the importance of providing clear and specific instructions to the delegate?
A nurse manager is conducting a performance evaluation of a newly hired nurse. Which aspect of supervision involves providing constructive feedback and guidance for improvement?
The nurse manager is responsible for organizing staffing and resources on a hospital unit to ensure safe and efficient patient care. Which function of unit management involves setting performance goals and standards for the unit?
A nurse manager is developing a long-term plan for the nursing department. Which type of planning focuses on the organization’s overall mission and vision?
A nurse is reviewing a research study that examines the effectiveness of a new pain management technique. What is the primary purpose of the “literature review” section in this research study?
A nurse researcher is planning to include minors (under 18 years old) as participants in a study. In addition to obtaining informed consent from the minors, what legal requirement should the researcher be aware of?
A nurse is part of a healthcare team making a critical decision about the plan of care for a deteriorating patient. The team is divided in their opinions about the best course of action. What leadership skill should the nurse demonstrate in this situation?
A nurse manager is conducting a performance evaluation for a nurse who consistently provides high-quality patient care and actively contributes to team collaboration. What action should the nurse manager take in this situation?
A nurse leader is implementing a change in the hospital’s medication administration process to enhance patient safety. What is the most appropriate first step in managing this change?
A nurse manager is facing a decision regarding staffing levels for the upcoming weekend. The manager has received requests from multiple staff members for time off. What should be the nurse manager’s priority when making this staffing decision?
A nurse is caring for an adult with an intellectual disability who is admitted to the hospital. What statement by the nurse demonstrates appropriate communication and care?
A toddler is consistently eating non-food items like paper and crayons. The nurse is assessing the child’s nutritional status. What statement by the nurse is most appropriate?
A patient with schizophrenia is experiencing auditory hallucinations and becomes agitated. What action should the nurse prioritize?
A nurse is caring for a patient who has been diagnosed with acute stress disorder following a traumatic event. What statement by the nurse demonstrates appropriate support and understanding?
A patient expresses suicidal thoughts and intent to a nurse. What statement by the nurse is most appropriate in this situation?
A patient exhibits a combination of disorganized speech, flat affect, and social withdrawal. Which subtype of schizophrenia is most likely present?
A patient with schizophrenia is prescribed an antipsychotic medication to manage their symptoms. What is the primary mechanism of action of most antipsychotic medications?
A nurse is providing education to a patient’s family about schizophrenia. What statement about the long-term prognosis of schizophrenia is most accurate?
A healthcare worker receives a needlestick injury while caring for a patient with chronic hepatitis B. What is the recommended immediate action?
A sexually active individual presents with multiple painful genital ulcers and inguinal lymphadenopathy. Laboratory tests reveal positive serology for syphilis, but dark-field microscopy of ulcer exudate is negative for Treponema pallidum. What stage of syphilis is most likely?
A 40-year-old patient presents with a persistent cough, night sweats, and weight loss. Chest X-ray shows bilateral upper lobe infiltrates with cavitation. Sputum cultures reveal acid-fast bacilli. What treatment regimen is most appropriate for this patient?
A patient presents with a sore throat, high fever, and a “strawberry tongue.” On examination, there are bilateral cervical lymphadenopathy and a diffuse erythematous rash. What diagnosis should be considered, and what diagnostic test can confirm it?
A newly diagnosed HIV-positive individual asks about the typical progression of the disease. What is the usual clinical course of untreated HIV infection?
A patient with tuberculosis (TB) is not responding to the standard first-line treatment. What term is used to describe TB that is resistant to both isoniazid (INH) and rifampin (RIF)?
A patient is diagnosed with active pulmonary TB. Which of the following individuals should be prioritized for TB contact investigation?
A 25-year-old individual in a serodiscordant relationship (one partner is HIV-positive, and the other is HIV-negative) asks about the most effective way to prevent HIV transmission. Which of the following strategies is recommended for the HIV-negative partner?
A sexually active person expresses concerns about their HIV status and wants to know which HIV test is most suitable for early detection of the virus, especially during the acute phase of infection. What test should be recommended?
A newborn with imperforate anus undergoes surgical repair. During the postoperative period, the nurse notices abdominal distention and absence of bowel sounds. The infant is afebrile. What should the nurse do first?
A neonate with a meningocele is scheduled for surgery. What should the nurse prioritize when preparing the infant for surgery?
A 2-week-old infant is diagnosed with pyloric stenosis and is scheduled for surgery. The nurse is preparing the infant for the procedure. What assessment finding should the nurse report to the surgeon immediately?
A 14-year-old female with scoliosis is scheduled for spinal fusion surgery. What should the nurse include in the preoperative education for the patient and their family?
A pregnant woman is diagnosed with syphilis during prenatal screening. What is the most critical nursing intervention in the care of this patient?
A newborn is born with a sac-like protrusion in the midline of the lower back covered by skin. What is the priority nursing intervention for this infant?
A 14-year-old adolescent is diagnosed with scoliosis during a routine school screening. What should the nurse prioritize during the initial assessment?
A newborn presents with vomiting, seizures, and a musty odor in their urine. Which inborn error of metabolism is most likely responsible for these symptoms?
A patient presents with chronic diarrhea, weight loss, and deficiencies in fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K). What is the most likely cause of these symptoms?
A child from a low-income family presents with severe malnutrition, including muscle wasting, edema, and skin lesions. What condition is most likely responsible for these symptoms?
A patient with myxoedema presents with severe hypothermia, altered mental status, and bradycardia. What immediate nursing action should be taken?
A patient with a non-toxic goitre is scheduled for thyroidectomy due to the size of the goitre compressing nearby structures. What preoperative nursing intervention is essential?
A patient with SIADH develops signs of hyponatremia. What should the nurse anticipate in the patient’s care plan?
A patient with thyrotoxicosis is scheduled for radioactive iodine therapy. What nursing intervention should be implemented before the procedure?
A patient is growing increasingly frustrated due to a prolonged wait for their test results. What is the nurse’s most appropriate response?
A patient with Dengue fever has a decreasing platelet count. When should the healthcare provider consider platelet transfusion for this patient?
A community experiences an outbreak of Dengue fever. What public health measures should be prioritized to control the spread of the disease?
A patient in recovery from heart disease makes the following statements. Which statement might indicate a need for further education?
A patient with obesity discusses their physical activity habits. Which statement might indicate a need for correction?
A patient with diabetes makes the following statements about their sugar intake. Which statement might indicate a need for further education?
A 65-year-old patient with a history of heavy smoking presents with neurological symptoms such as weakness and difficulty speaking. Imaging reveals a solitary brain lesion. What type of lung cancer is most likely responsible for these findings?
A patient presents with obstructive jaundice and imaging reveals a pancreatic head mass. Which tumor marker is most commonly elevated in pancreatic cancer and can aid in diagnosis?
A patient with a family history of prostate cancer is considering prostate cancer screening. What screening test is commonly used to detect prostate cancer, and what should the nurse educate the patient about regarding this test?
A nurse is caring for a patient with endometrial cancer. The patient asks about the risk factors for this type of cancer. Which of the following risk factors should the nurse include in the discussion?
A pediatric nurse is caring for a child with neuroblastoma. The child experiences sudden abdominal pain, pallor, and hypotension. What complication of neuroblastoma should the nurse suspect, and what is the appropriate initial intervention?
A nurse is providing education to a patient with a known history of ovarian cysts. The patient asks about the common signs of ovarian cyst rupture. What should the nurse include in the response?
A nurse is caring for a patient newly diagnosed with stomach cancer. The patient expresses concerns about nutrition and asks for dietary recommendations. What dietary advice should the nurse provide to support this patient’s nutritional needs?
A patient with myasthenia gravis presents with increasing muscle weakness throughout the day. Which nursing intervention is the highest priority for this patient?
A patient with osteoarthritis complains of morning joint stiffness and pain. Which nursing intervention is most appropriate?
A patient with a peptic ulcer experiences sudden, severe abdominal pain and vomiting blood. What is the nurse’s most urgent action?
A nurse is assessing a patient with a suspected myocardial infarction. The patient reports crushing chest pain that radiates to the left arm and jaw. Which additional symptom is most concerning for this patient?
A patient who recently had a myocardial infarction is prescribed nitroglycerin sublingual tablets. The nurse educates the patient on its use. What information is essential to include in the teaching?
A patient with Parkinson’s disease has been prescribed levodopa-carbidopa (Sinemet). The nurse should instruct the patient to take this medication:
A patient with Parkinson’s disease experiences “wearing-off” phenomenon, where medication effectiveness diminishes before the next dose is due. Which nursing intervention is appropriate to address this issue?
A nurse is caring for a patient who has just undergone percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to treat a myocardial infarction. What is the nurse’s priority assessment post-PCI?
A patient with congestive heart failure is prescribed furosemide (Lasix). What should the nurse instruct the patient to do while taking this medication?
A patient with a heart rate of 150 beats per minute (bpm) presents with palpitations, dizziness, and shortness of breath. The ECG shows narrow QRS complexes at a regular rate. Which dysrhythmia is most likely?
A patient with chronic kidney disease presents with muscle weakness, constipation, and ECG changes showing prolonged QT intervals. Which electrolyte imbalance is most likely responsible?
A patient is brought to the emergency department after ingesting a large quantity of diazepam. What antidote should the nurse be prepared to administer?
A patient is prescribed an intravenous medication to be administered at a rate of 50 mL/hour. The medication is supplied in a 250 mL bag. How many hours will the infusion last?
A 55-year-old patient presents with edema, foamy urine, and hypoalbuminemia. Which of the following findings is characteristic of nephrotic syndrome?
A 45-year-old patient with rheumatoid arthritis experiences joint deformities, especially in the fingers and wrists. What is the term for these permanent joint deformities commonly seen in this condition?
A patient who recently received an intravenous antibiotic develops fever, rash, joint pain, and swelling. What type of hypersensitivity reaction is most likely responsible for these symptoms?
A 30-year-old female patient presents with a butterfly-shaped rash on her face, joint pain, and fatigue. She also has a history of photosensitivity. Which autoimmune condition is most likely responsible for these symptoms?
A 35-year-old patient presents with a gunshot wound to the chest, and you suspect internal bleeding. Which of the following assessment findings is most concerning?
A patient involved in an industrial accident has a laceration on the forearm with a foreign object embedded in the bleeding wound. What is the most appropriate initial nursing action?
A patient with a gunshot wound to the abdomen is experiencing hypotension, rapid pulse, and cool, clammy skin. What type of shock is this patient most likely in?
A patient involved in a road traffic accident presents with bruising on the chest, tachypnea, and pleuritic chest pain. Which condition should the nurse suspect?
A nurse is part of a disaster response team at a major accident scene. Multiple casualties have varying degrees of injuries. Which patient should the nurse prioritize for immediate care?
A nurse is triaging patients after a natural disaster, and resources are limited. Which patient should be categorized as “expectant” and receive comfort measures only?
A patient presents to the emergency room with a wound caused by stepping on a rusty nail while gardening. What is the nurse’s initial action?
A patient is diagnosed with a pulmonary embolism and started on anticoagulant therapy. What education should the nurse provide to the patient?
A nurse is caring for a patient diagnosed with an ectopic pregnancy. The patient is stable, and the healthcare provider has decided on a conservative management approach. What medication is commonly used in this situation to treat ectopic pregnancies?
A nurse is assessing a newly diagnosed patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The patient’s fasting blood glucose levels are consistently elevated. Which of the following treatment options is most appropriate as initial therapy for this patient?
A nurse is assessing a patient with hypertension. Which of the following lifestyle modifications is most effective in reducing blood pressure?
A nurse is having difficulty understanding a patient’s non-verbal cues and expressions due to language barriers. What communication technique should the nurse use to enhance understanding?
A nurse is working in a primary care clinic and encounters a patient with multiple risk factors for heart disease, including smoking, a sedentary lifestyle, and a family history of cardiac problems. Which health promotion strategy should the nurse prioritize for this patient?
A nurse is assessing an elderly patient with multiple chronic conditions. The patient complains of fatigue and shortness of breath. What specific assessment technique should the nurse employ to gather more information about the patient’s respiratory status?
A nurse is conducting a health screening for a 50-year-old male patient with a family history of colorectal cancer. What screening test should the nurse recommend based on this information?
A nurse is caring for a patient who has recently lost a spouse. The patient seems withdrawn and often talks about feelings of guilt. What coping strategy is the patient displaying?
You are a nurse working in a busy hospital. A patient’s family member is upset and angry due to a delay in their loved one’s care. How should you respond professionally?
You notice a fellow nurse mishandling medication administration, potentially endangering a patient’s safety. What is the most professional response?
You are caring for a terminally ill patient who has expressed a desire to discontinue aggressive treatments. The patient’s family disagrees with this decision. What is a professional approach in this situation that requires careful consideration?
During a shift change report, you overhear a colleague discussing confidential patient information with others in a public area. What is the most professional action to take?
You are working in a pediatric ward, and a young patient is scared and refuses to take medication. What is the most professional approach to address this situation?